Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Analysis Of Bipolar Disorder In The Fall Of The House Of...

Many people today as well as during the 1800s, have suffered from psychological disorders including bipolar disorder. Edgar Allan Poe was one of many who were diagnosed with this disorder, and it is prevalent in many of his works. The Fall of the House of Usher by Poe clearly depicts the symptoms of bipolar disorder, and he translates his feelings on the topic as well. Through the use of Roderick Usher and his sister, Madeline, Poe depicts the transference of bipolar disorder within a family, and more specifically with twins. Deciphering a story centered around a psychological disorder challenges interpreters to have a significant understanding of that disorder as well. Bipolar disorder is a â€Å"brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in†¦show more content†¦Many studies of bipolar patients and their relatives have shown that bipolar disorder sometimes runs in families. The studies conducted on twins is perhaps some of the most startling information. Farlet explained â€Å"that if one identical twin has bipolar disorder, the other twin has a greater chance of developing bipolar disorder than another sibling in the family. Researchers conclude that the lifetime chance of an identical twin (of a bipolar twin) to also develop bipolar disorder is about 40% to 70%†(Farlet 27). The Fall of the House of Usher opens with a description of the landscape that serves as foreshadowing to the deteriorating state, both mentally and physically, of Roderick Usher. The story opens and readers are first exposed to a description of the house: a dull grey, a color oftentimes utilized to set depressing mood. The physical landscape appears to be diseased and decaying as the narrator looks â€Å"upon the bleak walls—upon the vacant eye-like windows— upon a few rank sedges—and upon a few white trunks of decayed trees—with an utter depression of soul† (Poe 3). This description juxtaposes with the mental state that the narrator finds Roderick in. The narrator goes on to comment about how the scenery provided â€Å"an iciness, a sinking, a sickening of the heart†(Poe 3). This is the beginning of a depressive episode in the narrator that most readers might overlook. The dreariness and decaying state of The House of Usher, a home he

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

SOCIAL PHOBIA Free Essays

Social Phobia Free Essays Social Anxiety Disorder: Social Phobia The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders defines social anxiety disorder as a marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur (DSM). Exposure to these situations provokes an immediate anxiety response such as a panic attack (DSM). In order to be diagnosed, fear or avoidance of these situations must interfere significantly with the person’s normal routines, occupational or academic functioning, social activities or relationships, or a person must experience marked distress about having the phobia (DSM). We will write a custom essay sample on Social Phobia or any similar topic only for you Order Now In 400 B. C. , Hippocrates described a young man that displayed the symptoms of a social anxiety disorder. â€Å"He dare not come in company for fear he should be misused, disgraced, overshoot himself in gesture or speeches, or be sick; he thinks every man observes him† (Burton 2009). Throughout the 20th century, psychiatrists described extremely shy patients as having social phobia and social neurosis. British psychiatrists Isaac Marks and Michael Gelder proposed that social phobias be considered a distinct category separate from other simple phobias (Hope, Heimberg, Juster, Turk 2005). In 1980, the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders introduced social phobia as an official psychiatric diagnosis. Social phobia was described as a fear of performance situations, but did not include fears of informal situations such as casual conversations or social situations. Patients with broad fears were likely to be diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder, which could not be diagnosed in conjunction with social phobia (Weiner, Freedheim, Freedheim, Reynolds, Miller, Gallagher, Nelson, Gallagher, Nelson, Gallagher, Nelson 2003). In 1985, psychiatrist Michael Liebowitz and psychologist Richard Heimberg initiated a call to action for research on social phobia (Weiner, Freedheim, Freedheim, Reynolds, Miller, Gallagher, Nelson, Gallagher, Nelson, Gallagher, Nelson 2003). Due to the lack of research on social anxiety disorder, the disorder came to be known by many as the â€Å"neglected anxiety disorder† (Weiner, Freedheim, Freedheim, Reynolds, Miller, Gallagher, Nelson, Gallagher, Nelson, Gallagher, Nelson 2003). In 1987, the DSM-III-R introduces changes in some of the diagnostic criteria. To diagnosis social anxiety disorder the symptoms must cause â€Å"interference or marked distress† rather than simply â€Å"significant distress. † It also became possible to diagnose social phobia and avoidant personality disorder in the same patient (Weiner, Freedheim, Freedheim, Reynolds, Miller, Gallagher, Nelson, Gallagher, Nelson, Gallagher, Nelson 2003). In 1994, the DSM-IV was released, and the disorder was defined as a â€Å"marked and persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or possible scrutiny by others† (Weiner, Freedheim, Freedheim, Reynolds, Miller, Gallagher, Nelson, Gallagher, Nelson, Gallagher, Nelson 2003). The etiology of social anxiety disorder is largely attributed to genetics, and environmental factors. Family studies of individuals with social anxiety disorder show a higher incidence of the disorder than that found in the general population, and a twin study found a concordance rate of 15. % in dizygotes and a 24. 4% concordance in monozygotes (Kedler, Neale, Kessler, Heath Eaves 1992. ). Of course, there is very little evidence that the genetic factors attributed to social anxiety disorder extend beyond the link between environmental factors since there is very little evidence of neurobiological factors. Other than the fact that sele ctive serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective treatments for social anxiety disorder, there is little evidence to implicate dysfunction of the serotonergic system (Jefferson 2001. . The lack of empirical data identifying neurobiological factors in causing the onset of social anxiety disorder is best stated in a quote by Dr. Murray B. Stein, a Professor of Psychiatry and Family Preventive Medicine at the University of California San Diego, â€Å"It is clear that we have a long way to go before we can speak with authority about the ‘neurobiology of social phobia’† (Stein 1998. ) Therefore, environmental factors remain the most referred to etiological agent in the onset of social anxiety disorder. Parenting traits such as over control, lack of warmth or rejection, and overprotection are known to be associated with the etiology of social anxiety disorder (Brooks, Schmidt 2008). Some individuals with social anxiety disorder associate its onset with a specific social event or interaction that was particularly embarrassing or humiliating. Such a circumstance could be considered an adverse conditioning stimulus (Jefferson 2001). There is further evidence that poor results from quality of life assessments can be attributed to social anxiety disorder. Individuals with major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder have substantially poorer quality of life than community comparison cohorts. In many cases, the quality-of-life impairments associated with these anxiety disorders are equal to or greater than those seen with other chronic medical disorders (Rapaport, Clary, Fayyad, Endicott 2005). Social anxiety disorder is a common disorder. The lifetime prevalence of SAD is somewhere between 7% and 13% in Western countries (Furmark 2002). Furthermore, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that social anxiety disorder is the most widespread of all the anxiety disorders, and the third most common psychiatric disorder after major depression and alcohol abuse (Brooks, Schmidt 2008). Therapy and medication are the most common treatments for social anxiety disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy is the most utilized form of psychotherapy, and has been found to be successful in seventy-five percent of patients (â€Å"Social anxiety disorder,† 2009). This type of therapy focuses on reminding the patient that it is their own thoughts, not other people or situations, that determine how they behave or react (â€Å"Social anxiety disorder,† 2009). In therapy, the patient is taught how to recognize and change the negative thoughts they have about themselves (â€Å"Social anxiety disorder,† 2009). Exposure therapy is also a common form of treatment for social anxiety disorder. In this type of therapy, the patient is gradually exposed to situations that they fear most (â€Å"Social anxiety disorder,† 2009). Exposure therapy enables the patient to learn coping techniques, and develop the courage to face them (â€Å"Social anxiety disorder,† 2009). The patient is also exposed to role-playing with emphasis on developing the skills to cope with different social situations in a â€Å"safe† environment (â€Å"Social anxiety disorder,† 2009). There are several medications used to treat social anxiety disorder. These medications are typically serotonin reuptake inhibitors including Paxil, Zoloft, and Prozac (â€Å"Social anxiety disorder,† 2009). A serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) drug such as Venlafaxine may also be used as a first-line therapy for social anxiety disorder (â€Å"Social anxiety disorder,† 2009). Typically, the patient begins with a low dosage, and is gradually increased to a full dosage, to minimize side effects (â€Å"Social anxiety disorder,† 2009). It may take up to three months of treatment before the patient begins to have noticeable improvement of symptoms (â€Å"Social anxiety disorder,† 2009). Social anxiety disorder remains a largely misunderstood, and under researched, disorder. Momentum through increased clinical research, in depth understanding through treatment, and stricter guidelines for proper diagnosis are positive indications that Psychology has recognized the debilitating effects of social anxiety disorder on patients. In time, clinicians will be better prepared to treat patients suffering from this disorder, and will improve the lives of patients. References Brooks, C. A. , Schmidt, L. A. (2008). Social anxiety disorder: a review of environmental risk factors. Neuropsychiatr Disease and Treatment, 4(1), Retrieved from http://www. ncbi. nlm. ih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC2515922/ Burton, Robert. (2009). The Anatomy of melancholy. Charlottesville, VA: The University of Virginia. Furmark T. (2002). Social phobia: overview of community surveys, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 105, Retrieved from http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmed/11939957 Hope, Debra, Heimberg, Richard, Juster, Harlan, Turk, Cynthia. (2005). Managing social anxiety. New York, NY: Oxfor d Univ Pr. Jefferson, J. W. (2001). Physicians postgraduate press, inc.. Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 3(1), Retrieved from http://www. cbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC181152/ Kedler, K. S. , Neale, M. C. , Kessler, R. C. , Heath, A. C. , and Eaves, L. J. (1992) The genetic epidemiology of phobias in women: the interrelationship of agoraphobia, social phobia, situational phobia, and simple phobia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. Rapaport, M. H. , Clary, C, Fayyad, R, Endicott, J. (2005). Quality-of-life impairment in depressive and anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(6), Retrieved from http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmed/9861470 Social anxiety disorder (social phobia). (2009). Mayoclinic. com. Retrieved (2010, April 25), Retrieved from http://www. mayoclinic. com/health/social-anxiety-disorder/DS00595/DSECTION=treatments%2Dand%2Ddrugs Stein, M. B. (1998). Neurobiological perspectives on social phobia: from affiliation to zoology. Biological Psychiatry, 44(12), Retrieved from http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmed/9861470 Weiner, Irving, Freedheim, Donald, Freedheim, Donald, Reynolds, William, Miller, Gloria, Gallagher, Michela, Nelson, Randy, Gallagher, Michela, Nelson, Randy, Gallagher, Michela, Nelson, Randy. (2003). Handbook of psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons Inc. How to cite Social Phobia, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Organisational Power British Airways

Question: Discuss about the Organisational Power for British Airways. Answer: Introduction Power and British Airways Brief discussion on the different sources of power and then argue the different power source in BA and why Other than managerial power, power too can be based on individuals and their responsibilities in the workplace. British Airways has a combination of the Expert Referent powers when flying their aircrafts. Expert Power is needed where flying the airplane is concerned, pilots hold critical roles for British Airways so their specialist knowledge on flying gives them power therefore any advice or decisions made by the pilot will far outweigh any other crew member or British Airways department at that moment. Reverent power is displayed through the air hostess, how well they adapt and fit with the training, look and culture of British airways. The likability and respect they tend to elude give them the power to work in first class and within the more premium sections of the airline. This power can quite easily be abused (Mindtools.com, 2016) therefore British Airways extensive training is beneficial to ensure behaviours are controlled. On an organisation level of power British Airways use a wide range of rewards, the pay; training; and benefits employees receive are highly sought and great in comparison to competitors like EasyJet. British Airways rewards power is displayed through their: Management bonus schemes; Employee Reward Plan; Pension schemes; and Bravo schemes (Britishairways.com, 2016). All are implemented through the use of managerial power on either an individual or department level with the purpose of influencing performance levels. This type of power is problematic though as the value of the reward is dependent on the individual and rewards are often restrictive for mangers (Mindtools.com, 2016), making them ineffective. British Airway have clearly tried to overcome such problems by including talent management, employee development and recognition into each of their schemes. The combination seems to be working with them reporting an increase in performance levels since they rolled out local incentive plans in 2008 (Britishairways, 2016). British Airways too relies on having good inter-departmental power. This is created to exercise power between departments or subunits, some organisations have focused more on using workplace politics to influence the behaviours of their employees. Politics involve using a number of suggestive or forceful influential tactics, where the meaning of each leads employees to act accordingly (Ellis and Dick, 1999). Other organisations have focused more on using structure so one department will have power over another depending on each departments resources/responsibilities to influence behaviours (Saunders, 1990). This is the case for British Airways where individual and task organisational levels are concerned. They reconstructed their workforce in 2009 to be more agile and leaner with better lines of management for accountability and improved governance (Britishairways.com, 2016). This created a legitimate managerial power culture as their main focus is to use their levels of management to engage employees and influence their performance levels. This is beneficial however, legitimate power can be unstable as the scope of influence the manger has is determined by how other view what you have control over (Mindtools.com, 2016). For example: employee may do what asked when it falls within their job description but may not listen if it doesnt Nonetheless this distributed individual level of power coincides with how British Airways organisational structure functions on a whole, as power is multi-dimensional and if used correctly with organisational politics it can create an organisation that is r esilient which is British Airways strategy. Power, Conflict and British Airways We analysed the case in order to find the issues using power and the conflict theories in order to see ways organisations can use power without conflict.But if we talk about conflict theories- then conflict theories tell us that the society in which we live is in an everlasting conflict. And this is not due to any kind of trade relations or industrialization but because of the sole reason which is quite evident now-a-days even- because of limited resources. As claimed by Karl, conflict theory says that the present social order can only be maintained by power and domination leaving past processes of consensus and conformity. If we see in the case of British Airways was turned into one of the largest airline of UK- making the world see that UK can also have such big companies. (Doyle 1999 p. 20) And this is where power and domination comes- from the times of it being a very high loss making venture, it has been one of the best examples of an excellent change in management (Heller, 1992 ). But after this there was no looking back, the way they have been then dominating the airline industry, as in 2000- it was one of the most admired company in Europe (Financial Times, 18th March 2000). As per the use of their power, their expertise, on a broader picture, we can also look at the name of this organization and the political scenario of the Britain. Why British Airways symbolizes power because they have been maintaining their order in the organization with domination of other players in the vicinity even. They have not allowed other to take over and always strive for the top most position.As Karl suggested that in the conflict theory, those who have power and wealth will hold on to it with suppressing the powerless. This is directly applicable as in BA- they make sure that they be the best by maintaining their standards with the wealth they have and by not letting the other players rise above their position of power. Conflict theory also ascribes most of the fundamenta l developments in human history, such as democracy and civil rights, to capitalistic attempts to control the masses rather than to a desire for social order. This theory even supports an important assumption that the present mainstream political institutions and cultural practices will always be on the side favouring leading groups and individuals. This can in turn mean the leading business groups which are always been favoured by the polity standards have this theory very much applicable because they also get favoured because of the stance they have. (Storey, J. 1985) If we also see the kind of employee policies they have and when they reconstructed themselves to make the workforce more agile, there is a clear cut sign that with resources which are indeed limited- the skilled workforce, they are making them work according to their conditions in order to maintain their profitable position in the airlines industry. (Young, D. 1989)

Sunday, March 29, 2020

A flat waterproof keyboard free essay sample

Schedule: Available now. Due 03/09/2014 11:59 PM EDT Top of Form Question 1 Select one answer. 10 points If you use your desktop computer only for doing schoolwork, which input and output device combination would be best from the options below (considering the best combination of cost, screen resolution, and keyboard design)? a gaming keyboard and a 27 LCD monitor a foldable keyboard and a 15 LCD monitor a wireless keyboard and a 24 LED monitor a split-style keyboard and a 30 LED monitor Question 2 Select one answer. 10 points In a situation where a handicapped person can only input data into the computer using a stylus or light pen, which keyboard configuration might be the solution? A keyboard with internal lighting to support work in low-light conditions. A keypad that is projected on an external flat surface. A flat waterproof keyboard. A split-style keyboard that separates and angles groups of keys into right- and left-hand portions. Question 3 Select one answer. 10 points Which device would not be appropriate for holding data, instructions, and information for future use? 1Tb external hard drive. Cloud storage CD or DVD 8Gb RAM Question 4 Select one answer. 10 points You are considering using cloud storage as your primary system for saving your data. What advantages does this storage media have over using your system’s hard drive or some other external media (external hard drive, flash drive, R/W disks) for storing your data? The cloud storage provider ensures that you have a backup of your data. The data is more secure in cloud storage than on your own storage devices. Cloud storage is definitely less expensive than the cost of a hard drive or external devices. You can always get to your data from anywhere. Question 5 Select one answer. 10 points Which device would be used to hold data, instructions, and information for future use? flash drive cloud storage hard drive none of the above; these are volatile storage devices all of the above; these are nonvolatile storage devices Question 6 Select one answer. 10 points Which of the following can be considered an output device? dot matrix printer wireless mouse joystick virtual keyboard Question 7 Select one answer. 10 points In this diagram of a simple home network, what appears to be missing? a server a modem an adapter card a router Question 8 Select one answer. 10 points One of the major advantages of installing a wireless network is: It does not require a modem to access the Internet. It is initially more secure than a wired network. It provides more flexibility than a wired network. It is faster than a wired network. Question 9 Select one answer. 10 points If you are going to install a completely wireless network in your home, each computer must have: a router a wireless adapter card a modem an Ethernet card Question 10 Select one answer. 10 points If you are going to network two computers together using cable connections, each computer must have: a modem a router a wireless adapter card an Ethernet interface card Question 11 Select one answer. 10 points How is data entered into the computer? using any type of hardware component that conveys information to one or more people using an electronic device that controls the timing of all peripherals connected to the system unit using a hardware component that allows submission of data or instructions. using the circuit board that interfaces with all external components attached to the CPU Question 12 Select one answer. 10 points A webcam would be considered an input device. True False Bottom of Form Bottom of Form

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Baron Friedrich von Steuben essays

Baron Friedrich von Steuben essays von steuben was born in magdeburg, germany in 1730. he attended jesult schools in bresaiu. he entered the prussian army's officer corps, and served in the seven years war. he then joined fredrick the greats military staff. he next was appointed chamberlain to the prussian court of hohenzollern hechingen. in 1777, von went to parns to meet america's foreign commissioners, benjamin franklin and silas deane offered them his, military services.who was impressedby von stuebons title, immediately sent him to gearge washingtons at valley forge he crossed the atlantic ocean from germany to drill george washingtons (soldiers) troops. von faught the american militia. many eupopean military formations and other war stralegies. ina few days washington saw a great difference in the cordination, awareness and knowledged of his soldiers arrived in plymouth n.h in 1778 to aid these americans in a fight for independence w.c.a. although he spoke no enlish, he systematically trained the amature, americ an troops in military discipline and battle readiness. the rigorous training saved the troops from complete defeat during the battle of mamouth. in 1779 von prepared his book "regulations of order and discipline for troops of the u.s" which remained americas official military manual for over 3 decades.it is still being used today in the military system today. later in the war, von commanded the war supply center and faught at yorktown. afterword, washington employed him in avarety of duties, from the creation of a plan to demobilize the wartime army to the acceptance of britian's surendered canadian forts. von also helped to found the society of cincinnati, and then resigned his american commision in 1784, after the war the new york legislature granted von an estate. he recieved a small pension from the u.s government, but relied on friends like alexander hamilton to settle his mounting dates. von died on november 28, 794. he was burried in new york in steu...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Discussion Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 5

Discussion - Article Example terest groups should only be a particular group that feels it has been neglected but instead American society should consider each and every individual as worthy of special interest (Bartleby.com 1). One of the most interesting aspects in Marc Cooper and Greg Goldin’s article â€Å"Some People Don’t Count’ is the racial aspect that the authors brought out. The two argue that the Los Angeles riots were largely the fault of Chief Daryl Gates who did little to put in place fair measures to ensure that the riots did not occur in the first place (Cooper & Goldin 1). Arrests were distinctly racial in nature as evidenced by the fact that the large majority of men who were arrested were from the Black and Latino community. The media did little to calm racial tensions constantly referring to these communities as violent. Another interesting aspect is the fact that the black leadership also did not do their part to provide support to the black community leaving gay organisations to do the large amount of encouraging activism (Cooper & Goldin